The artificial insemination is the easiest technique to achieve pregnancy. It is a simple and economic technique (in carefully selected cases) which consists in depositing the partner’s sperm, which previously has been treated in the laboratory, to the inside of the patient’s uterus.
Artificial insemination with donor’s sperm is a technique applied to patients with serious problems with sperm sample, such as total absence of sperm (azoospermia), low sperm concentration (oligozoospermia) or sperm of poor quality (teratospermia), genetic alterations… It is a simple and economic procedure which consists in depositing the donor’s sperm, previously selected, to the inside of the uterus.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) is nowadays the pioneering technique in assisted reproduction, which allows to solve most of the infertility problems. This technique consists in removing eggs from the patient, which will be fertilized in the laboratory with sperm from her partner or a donor (if it were the case). Later the embryos obtained will be transferred to the inside of the uterus. The successful pregnancy rate achieved by this technique is around 40%.
Transfer of frozen embryos is a technique which appears as a consequence of an In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Thanks to the extraction of multiple eggs which it allows, the embryos that can be obtained in the laboratory are also proportional. However, since the current law and the common sense do not allow us to put more than three embryos per transfer, all the supernumerary embryos are frozen, in order to be used in future cycles with frozen embryo transfer.
The testicular biopsy is a little surgical procedure which is used to determine, in patients with infertility problems, whether there is sperm in the testis or not, or to diagnose if there is any genetic problem.
Semen freezing is the technique for cryopreservation of semen samples of patients, either looking ahead to the future, because of the presence of diseases whose treatment determines the quality of the sample, or for other reasons, such as some surgical interventions.
Preservation of female fertility is now possible thanks to the appearance of vitrification. Vitrification is a new revolutionary technique which permits the ultra-quick freezing of gametes and embryos. In this way, it is possible to keep oocytes frozen at a low temperature for indefinite periods of time and to obtain high survival and pregnancy rates once devitrified.
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